0°

BABOK Guide3.0(6.2)Define Future State

BABOK Guide3.0(6.2)Define Future State


Purpose


The purpose of Define Future State is to determine the set of necessary conditions to meet the business need.


我们在之前的AS-IS用的是“分析”,而对于TO-BE这里使用的是“定义”。


Description


As with current state analysis, the purpose of future state analysis is not to create a comprehensive description of the outcome at a level of detail that will directly support implementation.


The future state will be defined at a level of detail that:

• allows for competing strategies to achieve the future state to be identified and assessed

• provides a clear definition of the outcomes that will satisfy the business needs,

• details the scope of the solution space

• allows for value associated with the future state to be assessed

• enables consensus to be achieved among key stakeholders


对于未来实现的定义,并不是非常细节的定义。

从上面的条目我们可以看出,这里的定义是一些高层级的,方向性的,范围性的定义。

其实也很好理解,我们在这里的定义其实是“看,我们要到达远处的那座大山!那上面有宝藏!这一路上会过草地、爬雪山、遇到妖魔鬼怪……”


如何进行未来态的描述呢?

Descriptions may include visual models and text to clearly show the scope boundaries and details. Relevant relationships between entities are identified and described.


对未来态的描述其实也是为了能够让所有人目标一致。

大家知道如果这样去做,最终会爬到大山上,获得宝藏。


Inputs


• Business Requirements


Elements


Business Goals and Objectives


A future state can be described in terms of business objectives or goals in order to guide the development of the change strategy and identify potential value.


这里提到了两个词:goal和objective,这两个词很相近但是还是有区别的。

Goals are longer term, ongoing, and qualitative statements of a state or condition that the organization is seeking to establish and maintain.


简单来说,Goal是分层的高级别定性的目标,而Objective是具体实现的可以操作、可以验证的目标。

For example, a goal may be to “increase number of high-revenue customers” and then be further refined into a

goal to “increase number of high revenue customers in the 30-45 age bracket by 30% within 6 months”.


而验证objective可以遵循SMART原则。

• S pecific: describing something that has an observable outcome,

• Measurable: tracking and measuring the outcome,

• Achievable: testing the feasibility of the effort,

• R elevant: aligning with the enterprise’s vision, mission, and goals, and

• T ime-bounded: defining a time frame that is consistent with the need.


Scope of Solution Space


The scope of the solution space defines which kinds of options will be considered when investigating possible solutions.

If multiple future states can meet the business needs, goals and objectives, it will be necessary to determine which ones will be considered.


解决方案的范围主要是要从商业需求,愿景,目标等方面进行考虑。

而考虑的因素越多,越难进行取舍。

在这个时候需要考虑对于企业来说,什么才是最迫切需要解决的问题。


Constraints


Constraints describe aspects of the current state, aspects of the planned future state that may not be changed by the solution, or mandatory elements of the design.

约束往往会被我们忽视,而在定义未来态的时候,一定要进行约束的考虑。

特别是预算、资源、政策、时间等方面的约束。

并不是“人有多大胆,地有多大产”,我们要进行合理的分析和评估。


Organizational Structure and Culture


The formal and informal working relationships that exist within the enterprise may need to change to facilitate the desired future state.


与现状分析类似,组织结构和文化也是定义未来态的重要元素。

特别是一些约定俗成的部分,需要特别的注意。

这些内容可能并没有明文规定,但是大家就是这么干的。


Capabilities and Processes


Identify new kinds of activities or changes in the way activities will be performed to realize the future state.

关于这个部分之前在6.1也提到过,其实是一样的。


Technology and Infrastructure


If current technology and infrastructure are insufficient to meet the business need, the business analyst identifies the changes necessary for the desired future

state.


现有的技术可能会影响未来态,特别是一些技术约束会对解决方案产生影响。


我之前做过一个项目,是基于一个平台进行二次开发的,这个很明确。

所以对于那个平台的技术特性需要比较了解,比如对于角色权限的控制方式,对于一些解决方案的约束等等。


Policies


If current polices are insufficient to meet the business need, the business analyst identifies the changes necessary for the desired future state.


我们在做产品或者项目的时候,其实仅仅靠信息系统或者软件等等能够做的事情是有限的。

更多的时候需要配套的政策和制度。


打个比方,你做一个知识管理系统,就算你的功能做的再完整,用户体验再好,也不一定推得起来。

原因就在于是否有配套的制度,比如对知识分享和创新的激励等等。


更明显的例子在于你将来计划对流程进行优化。

这里肯定会包括各个角色的职责明确,谁什么时候负责什么工作,达成什么目标。

而如果仅仅靠系统,很难达到预想的目标。


所以我们在定义未来态的时候可以将这些部分都考虑进去。


Business Architecture


我们做的项目或者是产品并不是孤立存在的,我们需要分析未来在整个业务架构、业务流程中的位置和作用。

UML有一个图叫做context grap,我们会翻译成“上下文图”,其实就是将我们将来要做的事情看成一个黑盒,它与哪些系统、角色等有怎样的关系,对这个部分进行分析。


Internal Assets


The assessment of existing and needed resources is considered when performing a feasibility analysis on possible solution approaches for the change strategy.


Identify Assumptions


These assumptions must be identified and clearly understood, so that appropriate decisions can be made if the assumption later proves invalid.


在我们做解决方案的时候,其实会有很多的假设条件,只是很多时候我们并没有把它显性化。


比如我们假设用户的并发,假设用户使用这个功能的频率等等。

这些假设最好是建立在一些事实基础上进行分析后得出的假设,而不是凭空的。


要知道如果你的未来,产品或项目的未来是建立在一堆没有事实为基础的假设上,那会是如何的空中楼阁啊。


Potential Value


The potential value of the future state is the net benefit of the solution after operating costs are accounted for.


While determining the future state, business analysts consider increased or decreased potential value from:

• external opportunities revealed in assessing external influences

• unknown strengths of new partners

• new technologies or knowledge

• potential loss of a competitor in the market

• mandated adoption of a change component


我记得曾经听一位信息化领导说过:“只要上了信息化这条船,你就下不来了。”

意思是,你没有进行信息化建设的时候,所有工作全部依赖于人,依赖于手工。

而一旦开始进行信息化建设,开始i建设一些系统,比如OA,渐渐的越来越多的系统会要建设。


也许一开始,大家会抱怨,以前请假就直接打个电话就好了,现在要填单子还要领导审批。

但是从长远来看,这样的管理显然更有效率。


所以我们在定义未来态的时候,眼光要更加的长远,挖掘潜在价值。

是,也许上了这个项目一两年会给组织带来比较大的冲击,甚至可能会起到不好的效果。

但是,从长远来看是非常有价值的。



另外一个例子是“云服务”。

如果要把现有系统迁移到云端,其实工作量不小。

甚至会出现目前运行好好的系统迁移后小毛病不断。

但是,从长远来看,这样做不仅会减少系统后期的维护费用,也保证了数据的备份和安全性。

(注:关于迁移到云端这件事情,需要慎重。有的系统确实不适合迁移。)



Guidelines and Tools


• Current State Description

• Metrics and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

• Organizational Strategy


Techniques


• Acceptance and Evaluation Criteria

• Balanced Scorecard

• Benchmarking and Market Analysis

• Brainstorming

• Business Capability Analysis

• Business Cases

• Business Model Canvas

• Decision Analysis

• Decision Modelling

• Financial Analysis

• Functional Decomposition

• Interviews

• Lessons Learned

• Metrics and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

• Mind Mapping

• Organizational Modelling

• Process Modelling

• Prototyping

• Scope Modelling

• Survey or Questionnaire

• SWOT Analysis

• Vendor Assessment

• Workshops


不难发现,这里的很多Tools与6.1是相同的。

所以我们在分析现状的时候,可以得到很多关于未来态定义的输入。


Stakeholders


• Customer

• Domain Subject Matter Expert

• End Use

• Implementation Subject Matter Expert

• Operational Support

• Project Manager

• Regulator

• Sponsor

• Supplier

• Tester

甚至干系人都与6.1类似……


Outputs


• Business Objectives

the desired direction that the business wishes to pursue in order to achieve the future state.


• Future State Description

the future state description includes boundaries of the proposed new, removed, and modified components of the enterprise and the potential value expected from the future state.


• Potential Value

the value that may be realized by implementing the proposed future state.


BABOK Guide3.0(6.2)Define Future State


写在最后

我觉得对于这个任务的三个输出,我们可以看出BA工作的套路:明确目标、进行描述、衡量价值。

其实对于这三个输出,需要考虑的是其内在一致性。

你的未来描述是奔着目标去的,你的潜在价值也不能与目标相背离。

对于未来态的描述,在这里不应该是虚的东西,而应该是可以衡量的,可以验证的。


小婧是一名行走在实践路上的资深业务分析师(BA),如果想与我同行,就请关注我吧!

BABOK Guide3.0(6.2)Define Future State




「点点赞赏,手留余香」

    还没有人赞赏,快来当第一个赞赏的人吧!
0 条回复 A 作者 M 管理员
    所有的伟大,都源于一个勇敢的开始!
欢迎您,新朋友,感谢参与互动!欢迎您 {{author}},您在本站有{{commentsCount}}条评论